The history of the museum's collection began almost immediately after the death of Taras Shevchenko. He died in St. Petersburg Academy of Arts, in a small workshop, which served as the artist's home and work place. All the things that were in that workshop became the basis for future exhibition.
In 1926 in Kyiv was formed the Academy of Sciences and the Institute of Literature named after Taras Shevchenko. It is here that began to accumulate a huge collection of Ukrainian poet literary heritage, paintings and so on. By government order all stuff of Shevchenko arrived in Kyiv from everywhere – both from private collectors and public museums.
Because of wars, the opening of the museum was delayed and only in 1949 the State Museum of Taras Shevchenko was opened.
In 2014, to the 200th anniversary since the birth of Taras Shevchenko repair and restoration works were carried out in the museum, prepared and launched a new exhibition, where for the first time in the history of the museum, conditions were created for the permanent presentation of works of Taras Shevchenko the artist (painting and graphics) in the original.